Venomous snakes

We fear from them as they have the capability to kill us by their venom. They’re snakes. Snakes belong to the suborder Serpents and are legless, crawling and elongating reptiles. They’re different from lizards as they lack eyelid and external ears. The skull bones of snakes have been demarcated by existence of a large number of joints which let them feed on a prey which is a lot bigger than them. Jaws are exceptionally configurable. They’ve a single functional lung. Some species bear a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Fifteen families are recognized comprising of 456 genera and 2,900 species. They range in size from 10 cm like that of thread snake into the larger pythons and anacondas that are about 7.6 meters long. The recently discovered fossil of snake Titanoboa was about 15 meters long.Rattlesnake, Toxic, Snake, Dangerous

Snakes are believed to have evolved out of their aquatic or aquatic lizard ancestors throughout the Cretaceous period. Modern snakes seemed throughout the Paleocene period. Vast majority of the species are non-poisonous and the venomous species utilize their venom as a measure of self-defence. Some venomous snakes possess the potential to kill even humans. Non-venomous snakes either swallow the prey alive or kill it by constriction. Fossil record of snakes is relatively poor since the skeletons are comparatively small making fossilization impossible. 150 million year old specimens of snakes have been discovered in South America and South Africa. Fossil records indicate that the snakes have developed in the burrowing lizards. Primitive snakes one of the contemporary ones would be the pythons and the boas.

Skull consists of a good braincase to which other bones have been loosely articulated making the jaws elastic so that effective feeding and prey capture can begin. The left and right surfaces of the lower jaw are joined to a ligament whereas the anterior end of lower jaw is articulated with the quadrate making the jaw more portable. Mandibles and quadrate also help in choosing sound borne vibrations. Hyoid is a little bone located in the neck area serving for the attachment of the tongue muscles. Vertebral column comprises 200-400 vertebrae. Tail vertebrae fewer and lack ribs. Vertebrae of human anatomy bear two ribs. Vertebrae have powerful articulation with muscles to be able to bring about effective locomotion in absence of limbs. Autotomy is absent in rodents. Pythons and boas possess a pair of vestiges of hind limbs in the kind of pelvic spurs present on either side of the cloaca composed of the vestiges of ilium and femur.

Heart can move out of its location as diaphragm is absent. This house protects heart from damage when large prey eaten passes throughout the oesophagus. Spleen is located attached to gall bladder and pancreas and aids in blood filtration. Thymus is located just above heart and also is responsible for the generation of immune cells. Cardiovascular system of snakes is unique in having a renal portal system in which the blood out of snake’s tail moves through kidneys before returning back to heart. Damaged lung is vestigial and can be even absent in some species. Nearly all species just one lung is functional. Anterior part of lung is highly vascularized participating in gaseous exchange while the posterior section fails to achieve that. Saccular lung provides buoyancy to snake body. Lymph nodes are absent.

Skin care is covered by overlapping scales. Belly scales are used for grasping to the surface. Eyelids are transparent and are frequently known as brille. Shedding of scales is known as as ecdysis. In snakes that the outer layer of skin is shed as a single coating. Scales are really the derivatives of skin. Scales on head, back and belly are significant from taxonomic viewpoint. Scales are named on the basis of the status in the body. Moulting is quite important in snakes it functions two fold purposes. It enables the snake from old and worn skin and second it will help to eliminate parasites and mites. Shedding of skin from the form of moulting helps to increase in size and it occurs occasionally. Before moulting a snake ceases feeding and hides itself in protective areas like underground burrows. Before moulting skin becomes rough, dry and eyes become cloudy. Inner surface of epidermis liquefies helping the older skin to readily leave the body. Old skin fractures close to the mouth and the snake pushes itself against the surface and the older skin leaves the body in 1 layer. An elderly snake sheds its skin a couple of times a year. A younger growing snake can shed its skin four times a year in order to grow. Discarded skin provides an imprint of scale structure on the snake’s body assists in identification.

Snake vision varies considerably. They can only distinguish light and dark objects and the eyesight is not sharp but adequate so they can only trace motions. Vision is greatest in arboreal snakes but bad from the burrow dwellers. Asian blossom snake has a binocular vision so both the eyes can focus on precisely the exact same point. Most snakes concentrate objects by back and forward movement of lens in connection with the retina while in others lens is stretched. Smell is used by snakes in prey tracking. Forked tongues help in olfaction as well as tasting prey. Tongues are kept in constant motion and allergens from air, ground and water are used for prey capture. The component of bodyin contact with ground is very sensitive to vibrations so they can sense any animal approaching near even with quite faint vibration. Pit vipers, pythons and some boas have infra-red sensitive receptors in deep grooves between the eyes and the nostrils.

Cobras, vipers and a few related ones use venom in order to immobilize or kill prey. Certain birds, mammals and a few snakes such as the kingsnakes prey on venomous snakes and have developed resistance in addition to immunity against the snake venom. Snake venom is a intricate mixture of proteins saved in poison glands in the back of your mind. The venom proteins may be a mixture of neurotoxins, haemotoxins, cytotoxins and bungarotoxins along with other toxins. Venom has hyalouronidase enzyme that assists in rapid diffusion of venom from the victim’s body. Cobras and kraits possess proteroglyphous fangs that remain permanently erect. Venomous snakes are categorized in three taxonomic households like Elapidae comprising of cobras, kraits, mambas, coral snakes, sea snakes and Viperidae comprising vipers, rattlesnakes, copperheads, bushmasters. The third family is Colubridae surrounding boomslangs, tree snakes, vine snakes however all colubrids are not poisonous.

All snakes are strictly carnivorous feeding on fish, eggs, insects, small mammals and snakes. They swallow the victim as a whole. Poisonous snakes kill the prey with venom before consuming it other swallow the prey by constriction. After feeding they are inactive for effective digestion to happen. They are ectothermic therefore the outside temperature helps in digestion. Finest temperature for digestion is 30C. Digestive enzymes assist in the digestion of claws, nails, feathers and hairs. Although the limbs are absent but snakes have developed special ways to perform locomotion. Lateral undulation is the most common mode of locomotion achieved by both aquatic and terrestrial snakes. In lateral undulation the entire body of snake flexes to left and right leading to the creation of rearward moving waves. The snake moves faster and high amount of energy is required to carry out this mode of locomotion.

Terrestrial lateral undulation is the most frequent manner of locomotion performed by property snakes. The posteriorly moving waves push the body more closer to the touch points in the surroundings like the trees, stones etc. causing the formation of a forward push. Snake moves faster even in thick or dense vegetation. While swimming the waves become more and the snake moves quicker. Thrust is generated by shoving the body against water. Sea snakes can perform reverse lateral undulation. Side winding is just another manner of locomotion adopted by colubrids such as vipers, elapids while going on a slick mud apartment or sand dune. It’s a modified type of lateral undulation where all of the body sections move in one direction and are in contact with the ground while other sections are lifted up leading to rolling of body. This mode of locomotion helps in preserving the energy.

When the push-points are absent and the snake is not able to carry out lateral undulation in addition to sidewinding like in the tunnels and the burrows then it moves via concertina locomotion. Inside this locomotion snake dentures that the posterior part of body against the tunnel wall while the front of mind expands and straightens. Front portion is subsequently relaxed and it stinks to shape a anchor along with the posterior section now straightens and can be pulled forwards. This is quite a manner of locomotion and requires high amount of energy. The slowest mode of locomotion is the rectilinear locomotion and it’s the only mode of locomotion where the snake doesn’t bends its body. The stomach scales are lifted up and pulled forward before being placed down and the body is pulled over them. Ribs don’t move in this manner of locomotion. It is the most common manner of locomotion in pythons, boas and vipers.

The tree snakes play locomotion differently that is very much determined by the bark of this tree as well as on the species. Snakes use altered form of concertina locomotion and might also crawl by lateral undulation of touch points can be found. Snakes move quicker on small branches if contact points are available. Fertilization in snakes is internal and can be transported by way of hemipenes stored and inverted in the tail of man snake. Most species are oviparous. Ladies of King cobra build nests for their eggs and protect them until they hatch. Most pythons coil around their eggs until they hatch. Some species are ovoviviparous and maintain eggs within their bodies until they are ready to hatch. Boa constrictor and green anaconda are viviparous nourishing the youngs by means of placentas well as yolk sac such as the greater placental mammals.

Snakes in general prevent biting humans. The sting of the non-poisonous snakes is generally benign. Out of those 725 species of venomous snakes just 250 species endure the capability to kill humans in one bite. Australia averages just one fatal snake bite annually. In India about 250,000 deaths have been recorded in a year by snake bite. Bite of a poisonous snake affects every organ of human body. It causes dizziness, fainting, increased thirst and headache. Blood pressure becomes low and heartbeat increases. Muscle coordination diminishes. Respiration slows down. Nausea and vomiting are also common. Excessive bleeding happens at the website of the sting. The snake venom can be treated with the support of anti-venom. The doses of venom are raised later on until the horse is immunized. Blood is extracted in the immunized horse and the serum is separated and purified and is permitted to freeze.

In such a series the Pest Experts plays music and the spider is seen to execute certain sorts of motions which are actually a kind of defensive action in response to the motions of the flute. According to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 has prohibited such kinds of illegitimate acts. Snakes are also consumed as food in certain parts of world. Snakes are also a famous delicacy in the kind of snake soups in some Asian countries. In western world snakes are also reared as pets. They also deserve a special place in the background and religion. Brazil is known as the Snake Island since it houses the largest population of snakes.

Though snakes appear hazardous but they help in keeping the ecological balance.

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